SQL Server將多行數據合併為一行

来源:https://www.cnblogs.com/atomy/archive/2022/05/10/16252833.html
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一、引言 需求描述:現實工作中,有一些很特別的需求:在一個彙總表中,需要顯示明細數據。因為是在彙總表中,所以明細數據只能顯示在某一列中,這個列,就是多行數據合併為一行之後的結果。 案例描述:比如,在物料凈需求表中,需求量扣減庫存量、在途量等等之後,結果為剩餘量,剩餘量為負則需要採購。此時,不管剩餘量 ...


一、引言

需求描述:現實工作中,有一些很特別的需求:在一個彙總表中,需要顯示明細數據。因為是在彙總表中,所以明細數據只能顯示在某一列中,這個列,就是多行數據合併為一行之後的結果。

案例描述:比如,在物料凈需求表中,需求量扣減庫存量、在途量等等之後,結果為剩餘量,剩餘量為負則需要採購。此時,不管剩餘量為正還是為負,我們都需要密切關註在途量所涉及的採購單號,讓物料在生產需求前到料並檢驗入庫。假設在物料凈需求表中,在途量明細需要顯示為:採購單A,在途量:XXX;採購單B,在途量:XXX……以此類似,該如何處理呢?處理原理請往下看。

二、測試數據

CREATE TABLE [dbo].[Score]
(
    [ID] [varchar] (32) COLLATE Chinese_PRC_CI_AS NULL,
    [Name] [varchar] (20) COLLATE Chinese_PRC_CI_AS NULL,
    [Subject] [varchar] (20) COLLATE Chinese_PRC_CI_AS NULL,
    [Value] [numeric] (4, 1) NULL
) ON [PRIMARY]
GO
INSERT INTO SCORE ([ID],[NAME],[SUBJECT],[VALUE]) VALUES ('1001','張三','語文',86)
INSERT INTO SCORE ([ID],[NAME],[SUBJECT],[VALUE]) VALUES ('1001','張三','數學',88)
INSERT INTO SCORE ([ID],[NAME],[SUBJECT],[VALUE]) VALUES ('1002','李四','語文',89)
INSERT INTO SCORE ([ID],[NAME],[SUBJECT],[VALUE]) VALUES ('1002','李四','數學',90)

三、實現方法

3.1、STUFF函數

代碼如下:

SELECT ID,[NAME],
    STUFF
    (
        (
            SELECT ','+[SUBJECT]+':'+CAST([VALUE] AS VARCHAR(MAX))
            FROM SCORE
            WHERE (ID=Result.ID)
            FOR XML PATH(''),TYPE).value('(./text())[1]','VARCHAR(MAX)'
        ),1,1,''
    ) AS NameValues
FROM SCORE Result
GROUP BY ID,[NAME]
ORDER BY ID

3.2、GROUP_CONCAT函數

GROUP_CONCAT並非SQL Server自帶函數,本文使用的是來源於網路自由軟體創建的托管代碼。GroupConcatInstallation.sql為函數安裝,GroupConcatUninstallation.sql為函數卸載

/*
GROUP_CONCAT string aggregate for SQL Server - https://groupconcat.codeplex.com
Copyright (C) 2011  Orlando Colamatteo

This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or 
any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
GNU General Public License for more details.

See http://www.gnu.org/licenses/ for a copy of the GNU General Public 
License.
*/

/*
Installation script for GROUP_CONCAT functions. Tested in SSMS 2008R2.
*/
SET NOCOUNT ON ;
GO

-- !! MODIFY TO SUIT YOUR TEST ENVIRONMENT !!
--USE GroupConcatTest
GO

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Turn advanced options on
EXEC sys.sp_configure @configname = 'show advanced options', @configvalue = 1 ;
GO
RECONFIGURE WITH OVERRIDE ;
GO
-- Enable CLR
EXEC sys.sp_configure @configname = 'clr enabled', @configvalue = 1 ;
GO
RECONFIGURE WITH OVERRIDE ;
GO
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SET ANSI_NULLS, ANSI_PADDING, ANSI_WARNINGS, ARITHABORT, QUOTED_IDENTIFIER ON;
SET CONCAT_NULL_YIELDS_NULL, NUMERIC_ROUNDABORT OFF;
GO
IF EXISTS (SELECT * FROM tempdb..sysobjects WHERE id=OBJECT_ID('tempdb..#tmpErrors')) DROP TABLE #tmpErrors
GO
CREATE TABLE #tmpErrors (Error int)
GO
SET XACT_ABORT ON
GO
SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL READ COMMITTED
GO
BEGIN TRANSACTION
GO
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PRINT N'Creating [GroupConcat]...';
GO
CREATE ASSEMBLY [GroupConcat]
    AUTHORIZATION [dbo]
    FROM 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    WITH PERMISSION_SET = SAFE;
GO
IF @@ERROR <> 0
   AND @@TRANCOUNT > 0
    BEGIN
        ROLLBACK;
    END
IF @@TRANCOUNT = 0
    BEGIN
        INSERT  INTO #tmpErrors (Error)
        VALUES                 (1);
        BEGIN TRANSACTION;
    END
GO
EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty 
    @name = N'URL',
    @value = N'http://groupconcat.codeplex.com',
    @level0type = N'ASSEMBLY',
    @level0name = N'GroupConcat'
GO
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PRINT N'Creating [dbo].[GROUP_CONCAT_D]...';
GO
CREATE AGGREGATE [dbo].[GROUP_CONCAT_D](@VALUE NVARCHAR (4000), @DELIMITER NVARCHAR (4))
    RETURNS NVARCHAR (MAX)
    EXTERNAL NAME [GroupConcat].[GroupConcat.GROUP_CONCAT_D];
GO
IF @@ERROR <> 0
   AND @@TRANCOUNT > 0
    BEGIN
        ROLLBACK;
    END
IF @@TRANCOUNT = 0
    BEGIN
        INSERT  INTO #tmpErrors (Error)
        VALUES                 (1);
        BEGIN TRANSACTION;
    END
GO
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PRINT N'Creating [dbo].[GROUP_CONCAT_S]...';
GO
CREATE AGGREGATE [dbo].[GROUP_CONCAT_S](@VALUE NVARCHAR (4000), @SORT_ORDER TINYINT)
    RETURNS NVARCHAR (MAX)
    EXTERNAL NAME [GroupConcat].[GroupConcat.GROUP_CONCAT_S];
GO
IF @@ERROR <> 0
   AND @@TRANCOUNT > 0
    BEGIN
        ROLLBACK;
    END
IF @@TRANCOUNT = 0
    BEGIN
        INSERT  INTO #tmpErrors (Error)
        VALUES                 (1);
        BEGIN TRANSACTION;
    END
GO
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PRINT N'Creating [dbo].[GROUP_CONCAT_DS]...';
GO
CREATE AGGREGATE [dbo].[GROUP_CONCAT_DS](@VALUE NVARCHAR (4000), @DELIMITER NVARCHAR (4), @SORT_ORDER TINYINT)
    RETURNS NVARCHAR (MAX)
    EXTERNAL NAME [GroupConcat].[GroupConcat.GROUP_CONCAT_DS];
GO
IF @@ERROR <> 0
   AND @@TRANCOUNT > 0
    BEGIN
        ROLLBACK;
    END
IF @@TRANCOUNT = 0
    BEGIN
        INSERT  INTO #tmpErrors (Error)
        VALUES                 (1);
        BEGIN TRANSACTION;
    END
GO
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PRINT N'Creating [dbo].[GROUP_CONCAT]...';
GO
CREATE AGGREGATE [dbo].[GROUP_CONCAT](@VALUE NVARCHAR (4000))
    RETURNS NVARCHAR (MAX)
    EXTERNAL NAME [GroupConcat].[GroupConcat.GROUP_CONCAT];
GO
IF @@ERROR <> 0
   AND @@TRANCOUNT > 0
    BEGIN
        ROLLBACK;
    END
IF @@TRANCOUNT = 0
    BEGIN
        INSERT  INTO #tmpErrors (Error)
        VALUES                 (1);
        BEGIN TRANSACTION;
    END
GO
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
IF EXISTS (SELECT * FROM #tmpErrors) ROLLBACK TRANSACTION
GO
IF @@TRANCOUNT>0 BEGIN
PRINT N'The transacted portion of the database update succeeded.'
COMMIT TRANSACTION
END
ELSE PRINT N'The transacted portion of the database update failed.'
GO
DROP TABLE #tmpErrors
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
GO
GroupConcatInstallation.sql
/*
GROUP_CONCAT string aggregate for SQL Server - https://groupconcat.codeplex.com
Copyright (C) 2011  Orlando Colamatteo

This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or 
any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
GNU General Public License for more details.

See http://www.gnu.org/licenses/ for a copy of the GNU General Public 
License.
*/

/*
Uninstallation script for GROUP_CONCAT functions. Tested in SSMS 2008R2.
*/
SET NOCOUNT ON ;
GO

-- !! MODIFY TO SUIT YOUR TEST ENVIRONMENT !!
--USE TEST
GO

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

IF EXISTS ( SELECT  *
            FROM    sys.objects
            WHERE   object_id = OBJECT_ID(N'[dbo].[GROUP_CONCAT]')
                    AND type = N'AF' ) 
    DROP AGGREGATE [dbo].[GROUP_CONCAT]
GO

IF EXISTS ( SELECT  *
            FROM    sys.objects
            WHERE   object_id = OBJECT_ID(N'[dbo].[GROUP_CONCAT_D]')
                    AND type = N'AF	   

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