mysql數據備份與恢復和mysql多實例部署

来源:https://www.cnblogs.com/marymary/archive/2022/07/31/16537774.html
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1.mysql資料庫備份與恢復 1.1 資料庫常用備份方案 資料庫備份方案: 冷備份:先把資料庫服務停掉,然後拷貝資料庫目錄下的文件進行備份 物理備份 溫備份: 熱備份:資料庫服務正常運行情況,直接對資料庫進行備份 全量備份:全部備份 增量備份:第一次全備,第二次在第一次全備更改的基礎上備份 差異備 ...


目錄

1.mysql資料庫備份與恢復

1.1 資料庫常用備份方案

資料庫備份方案:

  • 冷備份:先把資料庫服務停掉,然後拷貝資料庫目錄下的文件進行備份 物理備份
  • 溫備份:
  • 熱備份:資料庫服務正常運行情況,直接對資料庫進行備份
    • 全量備份:全部備份
    • 增量備份:第一次全備,第二次在第一次全備更改的基礎上備份
    • 差異備份:全部備份,差異備份-->全備
備份方案 特點
全量備份 全量備份就是指對某一個時間點上的所有數據或應用進行的一個完全拷貝。數據恢復快。備份時間長
增量備份 增量備份是指在一次全備份或上一次增量備份後,以後每次的備份只需備份與前一次相比增加和者被修改的文件。這就意味著,第一次增量備份的對象是進行全備後所產生的增加和修改的文件;第二次增量備份的對象是進行第一次增量備份後所產生的增加和修改的文件,如此類推。沒有重覆的備份數據,備份時間短,恢複數據時必須按一定的順序進行
差異備份 備份上一次的完全備份後發生變化的所有文件。差異備份是指在一次全備份後到進行差異備份的這段時間內,對那些增加或者修改文件的備份。在進行恢復時,我們只需對第一次全量備份和最後一次差異備份進行恢復。

1.2 mysql備份工具mysqldump

//語法:
mysqldump [OPTIONS] database [tables ...]//備份表(多表之間用空格連接)
mysqldump [OPTIONS] --all-databases [OPTIONS]//全備
mysqldump [OPTIONS] --databases [OPTIONS] DB1 [DB2 DB3...]//備份指定的資料庫

//常用的OPTIONS:
-uUSERNAME //指定資料庫用戶名
-hHOST //指定伺服器主機,請使用ip地址
-pPASSWORD //指定資料庫用戶的密碼
-P# //指定資料庫監聽的埠,這裡的#需用實際的埠號代替,如-P3307

[root@mr ~]# mysqldump -uroot -pmarui runtime tb_course > tb_course-$(date '+%Y%m%d%H%M%S').sql  (備份表)
mysqldump: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
[root@mr ~]# ls

tb_course-20220731140014.sql

[root@mr ~]# vim .my.cnf(免密登錄)
[mysqldump]
user=root
password=marui
(實現免密登錄)
[root@mr ~]# mysqldump runtime tb_course > tb_course-$(date '+%Y%m%d%H%M%S').sql
[root@mr ~]# ls

tb_course-20220731140014.sql
tb_course-20220731140726.sql

[root@mr ~]# mysqldump --databases runtime > runtime-$(date '+%Y%m%d%H%M%S').sql(備份資料庫)
[root@mr ~]# ls

runtime-20220731141008.sql

[root@mr ~]# mysqldump --all-databases > all-$(date '+%Y%m%d%H%M%S').sql(全備)
[root@mr ~]# ls

all-20220731141206.sql

[root@mr ~]# 

1.3 mysql數據恢復

mysql> delete from tb_course where id = 5 or id = 6;(刪除數據)
Query OK, 2 rows affected (0.01 sec)

mysql> select * from tb_course;
+----+-------------+
| id | course_name |
+----+-------------+
|  1 | Java        |
|  2 | Mysql       |
|  3 | Python      |
|  4 | Go          |
+----+-------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> 
[root@mr ~]# vim .my.cnf
[mysqldump]
user=root
password=marui

[client]
user=root
password=marui
方法一:
[root@mr ~]# mysql runtime < tb_course-20220731140726.sql

mysql> show tables;
+-------------------+
| Tables_in_runtime |
+-------------------+
| tb_course         |
| tb_students_info  |
+-------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> select * from tb_course;
+----+-------------+
| id | course_name |
+----+-------------+
|  1 | Java        |
|  2 | Mysql       |
|  3 | Python      |
|  4 | Go          |
|  5 | C++         |
|  6 | HTML        |
+----+-------------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> 
方法二:
mysql> source tb_course-20220731140726.sql
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

......

Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> select * from tb_course;
+----+-------------+
| id | course_name |
+----+-------------+
|  1 | Java        |
|  2 | Mysql       |
|  3 | Python      |
|  4 | Go          |
|  5 | C++         |
|  6 | HTML        |
+----+-------------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> 

物理備份
[root@mr ~]# cd /opt/data/
[root@mr data]# ls
auto.cnf         client-key.pem  ib_logfile1  mysql_bin.000003  performance_schema  server-cert.pem
ca-key.pem       ib_buffer_pool  ibtmp1       mysql_bin.000004  private_key.pem     server-key.pem
ca.pem           ibdata1         mr.err       mysql_bin.index   public_key.pem      sys
client-cert.pem  ib_logfile0     mysql        mysql.pid         runtime
[root@mr data]# mkdir /opt/mysql_bak/
[root@mr data]# mv * /opt/mysql_bak/
[root@mr data]# ls
mysql> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
+--------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> 
[root@mr data]# mv /opt/mysql_bak/* .
[root@mr data]# ls
auto.cnf         client-key.pem  ib_logfile1  mysql_bin.000003  performance_schema  server-cert.pem
ca-key.pem       ib_buffer_pool  ibtmp1       mysql_bin.000004  private_key.pem     server-key.pem
ca.pem           ibdata1         mr.err       mysql_bin.index   public_key.pem      sys
client-cert.pem  ib_logfile0     mysql        mysql.pid         runtime
[root@mr data]#
mysql> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| runtime            |
| sys                |
+--------------------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> 


1.4 差異備份

[root@mr ~]# vim /etc/my.cnf
[mysqld]
basedir = /usr/local/mysql
datadir = /opt/data
socket = /tmp/mysql.sock
port = 3306
pid-file = /opt/data/mysql.pid
user = mysql
skip-name-resolve
sql-mode = STRICT_TRANS_TABLES,NO_ZERO_IN_DATE,NO_ZERO_DATE,ERROR_FOR_DIVISION_BY_ZERO,NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER,NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION
server-id=10
log-bin=mysql_bin
[root@mr ~]# systemctl restart mysqld
[root@mr ~]# mysqldump --single-transaction --flush-logs --master-data=2 --all-databases --delete-master-logs > all.chayi.sql
(--single-transaction是事務日誌,--flush-logs是刷新日誌,--master-data=2指定master標誌符,--delete-master-logs刪除主的日誌)
[root@mr ~]# ls

all.chayi.sql

[root@mr ~]# 
mysql> insert tb_course(course_name) values('English'),('math');
Query OK, 2 rows affected (0.00 sec)
Records: 2  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> delete from tb_course where id = 4;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> select * from tb_course;
+----+-------------+
| id | course_name |
+----+-------------+
|  1 | Java        |
|  2 | Mysql       |
|  3 | Python      |
|  5 | C++         |
|  6 | HTML        |
|  7 | English     |
|  8 | math        |
+----+-------------+
7 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> 
刷新二進位日誌
[root@mr ~]# ll /opt/data/
total 123060

-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql      713 Jul 31 16:04 mysql_bin.000003
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql       19 Jul 31 15:59 mysql_bin.index

drwxr-x---. 2 mysql mysql     8192 Jul 27 16:21 sys
[root@mr ~]# cat /opt/data/mysql_bin.index 
./mysql_bin.000003
[root@mr ~]# mysqladmin -uroot -pmarui flush-logs
mysqladmin: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
[root@mr ~]# ll /opt/data/
total 123064

drwxr-x---. 2 mysql mysql     4096 Jul 27 16:21 mysql
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql      760 Jul 31 16:09 mysql_bin.000003
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql      154 Jul 31 16:09 mysql_bin.000004
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql       38 Jul 31 16:09 mysql_bin.index

[root@mr ~]# cat /opt/data/mysql_bin.index 
./mysql_bin.000003
./mysql_bin.000004
[root@mr ~]# 
[root@mr ~]# mysql < all.chayi.sql
mysql> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| runtime            |
| sys                |
+--------------------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> use runtime;
Database changed
mysql> select * from tb_course;
+----+-------------+
| id | course_name |
+----+-------------+
|  1 | Java        |
|  2 | Mysql       |
|  3 | Python      |
|  4 | Go          |
|  5 | C++         |
|  6 | HTML        |
+----+-------------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> 
mysql> show binlog events in 'mysql_bin.000003';
+------------------+-----+----------------+-----------+-------------+---------------------------------------+
| Log_name         | Pos | Event_type     | Server_id | End_log_pos | Info                                  |
+------------------+-----+----------------+-----------+-------------+---------------------------------------+
| mysql_bin.000003 |   4 | Format_desc    |        10 |         123 | Server ver: 5.7.38-log, Binlog ver: 4 |
| mysql_bin.000003 | 123 | Previous_gtids |        10 |         154 |                                       |
| mysql_bin.000003 | 154 | Anonymous_Gtid |        10 |         219 | SET @@SESSION.GTID_NEXT= 'ANONYMOUS'  |
| mysql_bin.000003 | 219 | Query          |        10 |         294 | BEGIN                                 |
| mysql_bin.000003 | 294 | Table_map      |        10 |         352 | table_id: 140 (runtime.tb_course)     |
| mysql_bin.000003 | 352 | Write_rows     |        10 |         410 | table_id: 140 flags: STMT_END_F       |
| mysql_bin.000003 | 410 | Xid            |        10 |         441 | COMMIT /* xid=480 */                  |
| mysql_bin.000003 | 441 | Anonymous_Gtid |        10 |         506 | SET @@SESSION.GTID_NEXT= 'ANONYMOUS'  |
| mysql_bin.000003 | 506 | Query          |        10 |         581 | BEGIN                                 |
| mysql_bin.000003 | 581 | Table_map      |        10 |         639 | table_id: 140 (runtime.tb_course)     |
| mysql_bin.000003 | 639 | Delete_rows    |        10 |         682 | table_id: 140 flags: STMT_END_F       |
| mysql_bin.000003 | 682 | Xid            |        10 |         713 | COMMIT /* xid=482 */                  |
| mysql_bin.000003 | 713 | Rotate         |        10 |         760 | mysql_bin.000004;pos=4                |
+------------------+-----+----------------+-----------+-------------+---------------------------------------+
13 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> 
[root@mr ~]# mysqlbinlog --stop-position=682 /opt/data/mysql_bin.000003 | mysql -uroot -pmarui
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
[root@mr ~]# 
mysql> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| runtime            |
| sys                |
+--------------------+
5 rows in set (0.01 sec)

mysql> use runtime;
Database changed
mysql> select * from tb_course;
+----+-------------+
| id | course_name |
+----+-------------+
|  1 | Java        |
|  2 | Mysql       |
|  3 | Python      |
|  4 | Go          |
|  5 | C++         |
|  6 | HTML        |
|  7 | English     |
|  8 | math        |
+----+-------------+
8 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> 

2 mysql多實例部署

  • 1 軟體下載
[root@mr ~]# cd /usr/src/
[root@mr src]# wget https://downloads.mysql.com/archives/get/p/23/file/mysql-5.7.38-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar.gz
  • 2 配置用戶和組並解壓二進位程式至/usr/local下
[root@mr src]# id mysql
id: ‘mysql’: no such user
[root@mr src]# useradd -r -M -s /sbin/nologin mysql
[root@mr src]# ls
debug  kernels  mysql-5.7.38-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar.gz
[root@mr src]# tar xf mysql-5.7.38-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar.gz -C /usr/local/
[root@mr src]# cd /usr/local/
[root@mr local]# ll
total 0
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   6 May 19  2020 bin
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   6 May 19  2020 etc
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   6 May 19  2020 games
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   6 May 19  2020 include
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   6 May 19  2020 lib
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root  17 Jul  6 09:33 lib64
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   6 May 19  2020 libexec
drwxr-xr-x. 9 root root 129 Jul 31 17:26 mysql-5.7.38-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   6 May 19  2020 sbin
drwxr-xr-x. 5 root root  49 Jul  6 09:33 share
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   6 May 19  2020 src
[root@mr local]# 
[root@mr local]# ln -s mysql-5.7.38-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64 mysql
[root@mr local]# ll
total 0
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   6 May 19  2020 bin
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   6 May 19  2020 etc
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   6 May 19  2020 games
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   6 May 19  2020 include
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   6 May 19  2020 lib
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root  17 Jul  6 09:33 lib64
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   6 May 19  2020 libexec
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root  35 Jul 31 17:27 mysql -> mysql-5.7.38-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64
drwxr-xr-x. 9 root root 129 Jul 31 17:26 mysql-5.7.38-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   6 May 19  2020 sbin
drwxr-xr-x. 5 root root  49 Jul  6 09:33 share
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   6 May 19  2020 src
[root@mr local]# 
[root@mr local]# chown -R mysql.mysql mysql*
[root@mr local]# ll
total 0
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root  root    6 May 19  2020 bin
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root  root    6 May 19  2020 etc
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root  root    6 May 19  2020 games
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root  root    6 May 19  2020 include
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root  root    6 May 19  2020 lib
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root  root   17 Jul  6 09:33 lib64
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root  root    6 May 19  2020 libexec
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 mysql mysql  35 Jul 31 17:27 mysql -> mysql-5.7.38-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64
drwxr-xr-x. 9 mysql mysql 129 Jul 31 17:26 mysql-5.7.38-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root  root    6 May 19  2020 sbin
drwxr-xr-x. 5 root  root   49 Jul  6 09:33 share
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root  root    6 May 19  2020 src
[root@mr local]# pwd
/usr/local
[root@mr local]# ls
bin  etc  games  include  lib  lib64  libexec  mysql  mysql-5.7.38-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64  sbin  share  src
[root@mr local]# cd mysql
[root@mr mysql]# ls
bin  docs  include  lib  LICENSE  man  README  share  support-files
[root@mr mysql]# echo 'export PATH=/usr/local/mysql/bin:$PATH' > /etc/profile.d/mysql.sh
[root@mr mysql]# source /etc/profile.d/mysql.sh 
[root@mr mysql]# ln -s /usr/local/mysql/include/ /usr/include/mysql
[root@mr mysql]# chown -R mysql.mysql /usr/include/mysql
[root@mr mysql]# ll -d /usr/include/mysql
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 mysql mysql 25 Jul 31 17:31 /usr/include/mysql -> /usr/local/mysql/include/
[root@mr mysql]# 
[root@mr mysql]# vim /etc/ld.so.conf.d/mysql.conf

/usr/local/mysql/lib
[root@mr mysql]# vim /etc/man_db.conf 

MANDATORY_MANPATH                       /usr/man
MANDATORY_MANPATH                       /usr/share/man
MANDATORY_MANPATH                       /usr/local/share/man
MANDATORY_MANPATH                       /usr/local/mysql/man
  • 3 創建各實例數據存放的目錄
[root@mr ~]# mkdir -p /opt/data/{3306,3307,3308}
[root@mr ~]# chown -R mysql.mysql /opt/data/
[root@mr ~]# ll -d /opt/data/
drwxr-xr-x. 5 mysql mysql 42 Jul 31 17:40 /opt/data/
[root@mr ~]# tree /opt/data/
/opt/data/
├── 3306
├── 3307
└── 3308

3 directories, 0 files
[root@mr ~]# 

  • 4 初始化各實例
[root@mr ~]# mysqld --initialize --user mysql --datadir /opt/data/3306
2022-07-31T09:44:28.907046Z 0 [Warning] TIMESTAMP with implicit DEFAULT value is deprecated. Please use --explicit_defaults_for_timestamp server option (see documentation for more details).
2022-07-31T09:44:29.040275Z 0 [Warning] InnoDB: New log files created, LSN=45790
2022-07-31T09:44:29.064827Z 0 [Warning] InnoDB: Creating foreign key constraint system tables.
2022-07-31T09:44:29.068832Z 0 [Warning] No existing UUID has been found, so we assume that this is the first time that this server has been started. Generating a new UUID: 5f337cfb-10b5-11ed-8041-000c2950070e.
2022-07-31T09:44:29.069409Z 0 [Warning] Gtid table is not ready to be used. Table 'mysql.gtid_executed' cannot be opened.
2022-07-31T09:44:29.481826Z 0 [Warning] A deprecated TLS version TLSv1 is enabled. Please use TLSv1.2 or higher.
2022-07-31T09:44:29.481870Z 0 [Warning] A deprecated TLS version TLSv1.1 is enabled. Please use TLSv1.2 or higher.
2022-07-31T09:44:29.482251Z 0 [Warning] CA certificate ca.pem is self signed.
2022-07-31T09:44:29.507332Z 1 [Note] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost: ds=WqMxEw5B%
[root@mr ~]# echo 'ds=WqMxEw5B%' > 3306
[root@mr ~]# cat 3306
ds=WqMxEw5B%
[root@mr ~]# 
[root@mr ~]# mysqld --initialize --user mysql --datadir /opt/data/3307
2022-07-31T09:45:57.115760Z 0 [Warning] TIMESTAMP with implicit DEFAULT value is deprecated. Please use --explicit_defaults_for_timestamp server option (see documentation for more details).
2022-07-31T09:45:57.253402Z 0 [Warning] InnoDB: New log files created, LSN=45790
2022-07-31T09:45:57.274926Z 0 [Warning] InnoDB: Creating foreign key constraint system tables.
2022-07-31T09:45:57.279112Z 0 [Warning] No existing UUID has been found, so we assume that this is the first time that this server has been started. Generating a new UUID: 93c74f09-10b5-11ed-844a-000c2950070e.
2022-07-31T09:45:57.280633Z 0 [Warning] Gtid table is not ready to be used. Table 'mysql.gtid_executed' cannot be opened.
2022-07-31T09:45:57.576351Z 0 [Warning] A deprecated TLS version TLSv1 is enabled. Please use TLSv1.2 or higher.
2022-07-31T09:45:57.576387Z 0 [Warning] A deprecated TLS version TLSv1.1 is enabled. Please use TLSv1.2 or higher.
2022-07-31T09:45:57.576764Z 0 [Warning] CA certificate ca.pem is self signed.
2022-07-31T09:45:57.596717Z 1 [Note] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost: LzXC#WG-x1Kd
[root@mr ~]# echo 'LzXC#WG-x1Kd' > 3307
[root@mr ~]# cat 3307
LzXC#WG-x1Kd
[root@mr ~]# mysqld --initialize --user mysql --datadir /opt/data/3308
2022-07-31T09:46:48.315446Z 0 [Warning] TIMESTAMP with implicit DEFAULT value is deprecated. Please use --explicit_defaults_for_timestamp server option (see documentation for more details).
2022-07-31T09:46:48.483622Z 0 [Warning] InnoDB: New log files created, LSN=45790
2022-07-31T09:46:48.509017Z 0 [Warning] InnoDB: Creating foreign key constraint system tables.
2022-07-31T09:46:48.517038Z 0 [Warning] No existing UUID has been found, so we assume that this is the first time that this server has been started. Generating a new UUID: b251987e-10b5-11ed-8604-000c2950070e.
2022-07-31T09:46:48.517584Z 0 [Warning] Gtid table is not ready to be used. Table 'mysql.gtid_executed' cannot be opened.
2022-07-31T09:46:48.708884Z 0 [Warning] A deprecated TLS version TLSv1 is enabled. Please use TLSv1.2 or higher.
2022-07-31T09:46:48.708917Z 0 [Warning] A deprecated TLS version TLSv1.1 is enabled. Please use TLSv1.2 or higher.
2022-07-31T09:46:48.709402Z 0 [Warning] CA certificate ca.pem is self signed.
2022-07-31T09:46:48.811564Z 1 [Note] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost: ,L&rJy+Sm9z:
[root@mr ~]# echo ',L&rJy+Sm9z:' > 3308
[root@mr ~]# cat 3308
,L&rJy+Sm9z:
[root@mr ~]# 
[root@mr ~]# ls
3306  3307  3308  anaconda-ks.cfg

  • 5 安裝perl
[root@mr ~]# yum -y install perl
......
  python3-rpm-macros-3-42.el8.noarch                                                                            
  qt5-srpm-macros-5.15.3-1.el8.noarch                                                                           
  redhat-rpm-config-125-1.el8.noarch                                                                            
  rust-srpm-macros-5-2.el8.noarch                                                                               
  systemtap-sdt-devel-4.7-1.el8.x86_64                                                                          
  unzip-6.0-46.el8.x86_64                                                                                       
  zip-3.0-23.el8.x86_64                                                                                         

Complete!
[root@mr ~]# 

    1. 配置配置文件/etc/my.cnf

[root@mr ~]# vim /etc/my.cnf
[mysqld_multi]
mysqld = /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe
mysqladmin = /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin

[mysqld3306]
datadir = /opt/data/3306
port = 3306
socket = /tmp/mysql3306.sock
pid-file = /opt/data/3306/mysql_3306.pid
log-error=/var/log/3306.log

[mysqld3307]
datadir = /opt/data/3307
port = 3307
socket = /tmp/mysql3307.sock
pid-file = /opt/data/3307/mysql_3307.pid
log-error=/var/log/3307.log

[mysqld3308]
datadir = /opt/data/3308
port = 3308
socket = /tmp/mysql3308.sock
pid-file = /opt/data/3308/mysql_3308.pid
log-error=/var/log/3308.log


    1. 啟動各實例
[root@mr ~]# mysqld_multi start 3306
[root@mr ~]# ss -antl
State        Recv-Q       Send-Q             Local Address:Port             Peer Address:Port      Process      
LISTEN       0            128                      0.0.0.0:22                    0.0.0.0:*                      
LISTEN       0            80                             *:3306                        *:*                      
LISTEN       0            128                         [::]:22                       [::]:*                      
[root@mr ~]# mysqld_multi start 3307
[root@mr ~]# mysqld_multi start 3308
[root@mr ~]# ss -antl
State        Recv-Q       Send-Q             Local Address:Port             Peer Address:Port      Process      
LISTEN       0            128                      0.0.0.0:22                    0.0.0.0:*                      
LISTEN       0            80                             *:3306                        *:*                      
LISTEN       0            80                             *:3307                        *:*                      
LISTEN       0            80                             *:3308                        *:*                      
LISTEN       0            128                         [::]:22                       [::]:*                      
[root@mr ~]# 

    1. 初始化密碼
[root@mr ~]# ls
3306  3307  3308  anaconda-ks.cfg
[root@mr ~]# cat 3306
ds=WqMxEw5B%
[root@mr ~]# mysql -uroot -pds=WqMxEw5B% -S /tmp/mysql3306.sock
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 2
Server version: 5.7.38

Copyright (c) 2000, 2022, Oracle and/or its affiliates.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> set password = password('3306');
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

mysql> exit
Bye
[root@mr ~]# mysql -uroot -p3306 -S /tmp/mysql3306.sock
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 4
Server version: 5.7.38 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2022, Oracle and/or its affiliates.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> 

[root@mr ~]# cat 3307
LzXC#WG-x1Kd
[root@mr ~]# mysql -uroot -pLzXC#WG-x1Kd -S /tmp/mysql3307.sock
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 2
Server version: 5.7.38

Copyright (c) 2000, 2022, Oracle and/or its affiliates.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> set password = password('3307');
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

mysql> exit
Bye
[root@mr ~]# mysql -uroot -p3307 -S /tmp/mysql3307.sock
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 4
Server version: 5.7.38 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2022, Oracle and/or its affiliates.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> 


[root@mr ~]# cat 3308
,L&rJy+Sm9z:
[root@mr ~]# mysql -uroot -p',L&rJy+Sm9z:' -S /tmp/mysql3308.sock
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 2
Server version: 5.7.38

Copyright (c) 2000, 2022, Oracle and/or its affiliates.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> set password = password('3308');
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

mysql> exit
Bye
[root@mr ~]# mysql -uroot -p'3308' -S /tmp/mysql3308.sock
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 4
Server version: 5.7.38 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2022, Oracle and/or its affiliates.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> 



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